An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash: a AAAAA g AABBA m ABABB s BAAAB y BABBA b AAAAB h AABBB n ABBAA t BAABA z BABBB c AAABA i ABAAA o ABBAB u BAABB d AAABB j BBBAA p ABBBA v BBBAB e AABAA k ABAAB q ABBBB w BABAA f AABAB l ABABA r BAAAA x BABAB In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1.

The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged.Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse: ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13: A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. ^oi ' COI\PO[\IS HUM AM FABRICA, Di L EJUS FUKCTIONIBUS IN AGUNT, De grsvltata apccifica eorpot la* 90. De vi reproductiva animalivnif 9 De iiritab Uitate.

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