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Arabic, a Semitic language, was introduced by the Arab conquerors and has three different forms: classical, modern standard, and spoken.Classical Arabic, best known by scholars, is the written language of the Qur'an.Arabs comprise about three-fourths of the population, and Kurds compose about one-fifth.The remaining people are divided into several ethnic groups, including Assyrian, Turkoman, Chaldean, Armenian, Yazidi, and Jewish. Almost all Iraqis speak and understand their official language, Arabic.the land belonged to the Sumerians, who built advanced irrigation systems, developed cereal agriculture, invented the earliest form of writing, a math system on which time in the modern world is based, the wheel, and the first plow.Literature was produced, including the first known recorded story, the Epic of Gilgamesh.Kurdish is the official language in Kurdistan, and serves to distinguish Kurds from other Iraqis.
When the Sumerian civilization collapsed in about 1700 , King Hammurabi took over the area and renamed it Babylonia.
During the Persian Gulf War in 1991, the phrase Allahu Akbar (God is great) was added to the flag.
The flag resembles other Arab countries' flags and demonstrates Iraqi faith in Allah and Arab unity.
As the Persians were eventually defeated, the people of Mesopotamia began to convert to Islam and intermarry with Arabs.
In 762 the capital city of Baghdad was founded, and it became an important commercial, cultural, and educational center.